Research


There are a number of research papers, experiments, and other activities directly attributable to discussions that have occurred at past WOSMIP meetings.  Below is a list of some of those articles related to this area. If you are an author and do not see your work listed, please contact our webmaster and we will add a link to your paper.

Atmospheric Transport Modeling


  • De Meutter, Camps, Delcloo, Deconninck, & Termonia (2016). On the capability to model the background and its uncertainty of CTBT-relevant radioxenon isotopes in Europe by using ensemble dispersion modeling. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 164, 280-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.07.033
  • De Meutter, Camps, Delcloo, & Termonia (2017). Assessment of the announced North Korean nuclear test using long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling. Scientific Reports, 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07113-y
  • De Meutter, Camps, Delcloo, & Termonia (2018). Backtracking Radioxenon in Europe Using Ensemble Transport and Dispersion Modelling. Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application Xxv, 147-150. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-57645-9_23
  • Eslinger, Bowyer, Achim, Chai, Deconninck, Freeman, et al. (2016). International challenge to predict the impact of radioxenon releases from medical isotope production on a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty sampling station. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 157, 41-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.03.001
  • Generoso, Achim, Morin, Gross, Le Petit, & Moulin (2018). Seasonal Variability of Xe-133 Global Atmospheric Background: Characterization and Implications for the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 123(3), 1865-1882. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD027765
  • Johnson, Lowrey, Biegalski, & Haas (2015). Regional transport of radioxenon released from the Chalk River Laboratories medical isotope facility. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 305(1), 207-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-015-4077-6
  • Maurer, Bare, Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Crawford, Eslinger, Seibert, et al. (2018). International challenge to model the long-range transport of radioxenon released from medical isotope production to six Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring stations. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, 667-686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.01.030
  • Stein, A.F., et al., NOAA’s HYSPLIT Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion Modeling System. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2015. 96(12): p. 2059-2077. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00110.1

Special Techniques and Data Analysis


Detection of Events


  • Achim, Monfort, Le Petit, Gross, Douysset, Taffary, et al. (2014). Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(3-5), 645-667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0578-1
  • Becker, Wotawa, Ringbom, & Saey (2010). Backtracking of Noble Gas Measurements Taken in the Aftermath of the Announced October 2006 Event in North Korea by Means of PTS Methods in Nuclear Source Estimation and Reconstruction. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 167(4-5), 581-599. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-009-0025-0
  • Biegalski, Bowyer, Eslinger, Friese, Greenwood, Haas, et al. (2012). Analysis of data from sensitive US monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 114, 15-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.007
  • Bowyer, Biegalski, Cooper, Eslinger, Haas, Hayes, et al. (2011). Elevated radioxenon detected remotely following the Fukushima nuclear accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102(7), 681-687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.04.009
  • De Meutter, Camps, Delcloo, & Termonia (2017). Assessment of the announced North Korean nuclear test using long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling. Scientific Reports, 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07113-y
  • Eslinger, Biegalski, Bowyer, Cooper, Haas, Hayes, et al. (2014). Source term estimation of radioxenon released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactors using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 127, 127-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.10.013
  • Kurzeja, Buckley, Werth, & Chiswell (2018). Detection of nuclear testing from surface concentration measurements: Analysis of radioxenon from the February 2013 underground test in North Korea. Atmospheric Environment, 176, 274-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.12.033
  • Kalinowski, & Tuma (2009). Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 100(1), 58-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.10.015
  • Masson, Baeza, Bieringer, Brudecki, Bucci, Cappai, et al. (2011). Tracking of Airborne Radionuclides from the Damaged Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Reactors by European Networks. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(18), 7670-7677. https://doi.org/10.1021/es2017158
  • Orr, Schoppner, Tinker, & Plastino (2013). Detection of radioxenon in Darwin, Australia following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 126, 40-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.07.002
  • Pakhomov, & Dubasov (2010). Estimation of Explosion Energy Yield at Chernobyl NPP Accident. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 167(4-5), 575-580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-009-0029-9
  • Ringbom, Elmgren, Lindh, Peterson, Bowyer, Hayes, et al. (2009). Measurements of radioxenon in ground level air in South Korea following the claimed nuclear test in North Korea on October 9, 2006. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 282(3), 773-779. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-009-0271-8
  • Saey, Bean, Becker, Coyne, d'Amours, De Geer, et al. (2007). A long distance measurement of radioxenon in Yellowknife, Canada, in late October 2006. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(20).
  • Sinclair, Seywerd, Fortin, Carson, Saull, Coyle, et al. (2011). Aerial measurement of radioxenon concentration off the west coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima reactor accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102(11), 1018-1023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.06.008
  • Woods, Bowyer, Biegalski, Greenwood, Haas, Hayes, et al. (2013). Parallel radioisotope collection and analysis in response to the Fukushima release. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 296(2), 883-888. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-012-2210-3
  • Wang, Li, Meng, Chen, Zhao, Li, et al. (2013). Radioxenon monitoring in Beijing following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 81, 344-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2013.03.049
  • Zhou, Zhou, Feng, Jin, Zhao, Cheng, et al. (2013). Atmospheric radioxenon isotope monitoring in Beijing after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 72, 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.10.007

Stack Monitoring


  • Friese (2019). The STAX Project. A new data source to aid in treaty monitoring. Report #PNNL-SA-143481, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Poster from SnT 2019; available internally
  • Ringbom, A., et al., Radioxenon Releases from A Nuclear Power Plant: Stack Data and Atmospheric Measurements. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-020-02425-z
  • Zickefoose, J.K., et al., Spectroscopic noble gas stack monitor with continuous unattended operation and analysis. 2018. 318(1): p. 387-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6029-4

Medical Isotope Production


  • Lee, Beyer, & Lee (2016). Development of Industrial-Scale Fission Mo-99 Production Process Using Low Enriched Uranium Target. Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 48(3), 613-623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2016.04.006
  • OECD (2018). The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: 2018 Medical Isotope Demand and Capacity Projection for the 2018-2023 Period. Report #NEA/SEN/HLGMR(2018)3, Nuclear Technology Development and Economics, Nuclear Energy Agency. https://www.oecd-nea.org/med-radio/docs/sen-hlgmr2018-3.pdf
  • Saey (2009). The influence of radiopharmaceutical isotope production on the global radioxenon background. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 100(5), 396-406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.01.004
  • Saey, Auer, Becker, Hoffmann, Nikkinen, Ringbom, et al. (2010). The influence on the radioxenon background during the temporary suspension of operations of three major medical isotope production facilities in the Northern Hemisphere and during the start-up of another facility in the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 101(9), 730-738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2010.04.016
  • Saey, Bowyer, & Ringbom (2010). Isotopic noble gas signatures released from medical isotope production facilities-Simulations and measurements. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 68(9), 1846-1854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2010.04.014
  • Tataurov, A.L. and O.S. Feinberg, Molten Salt Reactor for 99Mo Production. Atomic Energy, 2017. 122(5): p. 299-303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10512-017-0270-8

Impacts of Man-Made Isotope Production and Nuclear Reactors


  • Achim, P., et al., Contribution of isotopes production facilities and nuclear power plants to the Xe-133 worldwide atmospheric background. CTBT Science and Technology, Vienna, Austria, 2011: p. 8-10. https://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/SandT_2011/posters/T2-P3%20P_Achim%20Contribution%20of%20Isotopes%20production%20facilities%20and%20nuclear%20power%20plants.pdf
  • Bowyer, Eslinger, Cameron, Friese, Hayes, Metz, et al. (2014). Potential impact of releases from a new Molybdenum-99 production facility on regional measurements of airborne xenon isotopes. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 129, 43-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.11.012
  • Bowyer, Kephart, Eslinger, Friese, Miley, & Saey (2013). Maximum reasonable radioxenon releases from medical isotope production facilities and their effect on monitoring nuclear explosions. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 115, 192-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2012.07.018
  • Eslinger, Cameron, Dumais, Imardjoko, Marsoem, McIntyre, et al. (2015). Source term estimates of radioxenon released from the BaTek medical isotope production facility using external measured air concentrations. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 148, 10-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.05.026
  • Gueibe, Kalinowski, Bare, Gheddou, Krysta, & Kusmierczyk-Michulec (2017). Setting the baseline for estimated background observations at IMS systems of four radioxenon isotopes in 2014. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 178, 297-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2017.09.007
  • Hoffman, & Berg (2018). Medical isotope production, research reactors and their contribution to the global xenon background. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 318(1), 165-173. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6128-2
  • Hoffman, Ungar, Bean, Yi, Servranckx, Zaganescu, et al. (2009). Changes in radioxenon observations in Canada and Europe during medical isotope production facility shut down in 2008. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 282(3), 767-772. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-009-0235-z
  • Johnson, C., et al., Production and release rate of 37Ar from the UT TRIGA Mark-II research reactor. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2017. 167: p. 249-253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.11.017
  • Johnson, Biegalski, Haas, Lowrey, Bowyer, Hayes, et al. (2017). Detection in subsurface air of radioxenon released from medical isotope production. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 167, 160-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.10.021
  • Johnson, Lowrey, Biegalski, & Haas (2015). Regional transport of radioxenon released from the Chalk River Laboratories medical isotope facility. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 305(1), 207-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-015-4077-6
  • Kalinowski, Grosch, & Hebel (2014). Global Xenon-133 Emission Inventory Caused by Medical Isotope Production and Derived from the Worldwide Technetium-99m Demand. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(3-5), 707-716. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-013-0687-5
  • Kalinowski, & Liao (2014). Isotopic Characterization of Radioiodine and Radioxenon in Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions with Various Degrees of Fractionation. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 171(3-5), 677-692. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-012-0580-7
  • LeBlanc, D. and C. Rodenburg, 18 - Integral molten salt reactor, in Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy, T.J. Dolan, Editor. 2017, Woodhead Publishing. p. 541-556. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101126-3.00018-X
  • Miley, H.S., et al., The potential detection of low-level aerosol isotopes from new civilian nuclear processes. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2017. 126: p. 232-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.02.033
  • Saey (2009). The influence of radiopharmaceutical isotope production on the global radioxenon background. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 100(5), 396-406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.01.004
  • Saey, Auer, Becker, Hoffmann, Nikkinen, Ringbom, et al. (2010). The influence on the radioxenon background during the temporary suspension of operations of three major medical isotope production facilities in the Northern Hemisphere and during the start-up of another facility in the Southern Hemisphere. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 101(9), 730-738. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2010.04.016
  • Serp, J., et al., The molten salt reactor (MSR) in generation IV: overview and perspectives. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 2014. 77: p. 308-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2014.02.014
  • Wotawa, Becker, Kalinowski, Saey, Tuma, & Zahringer (2010). Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope Xe-133 based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 167(4-5), 541-557. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-009-0033-0

Emissions Mitigation


System Development


  • Auer, Axelsson, Blanchard, Bowyer, Brachet, Bulowski, et al. (2004). Intercomparison experiments of systems for the measurement of xenon radionuclides in the atmosphere. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 60(6), 863-877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.01.011
  • Auer, Kumberg, Sartorius, Wernsperger, & Schlosser (2010). Ten Years of Development of Equipment for Measurement of Atmospheric Radioactive Xenon for the Verification of the CTBT. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 167(4-5), 471-486. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-009-0027-y
  • Bowyer (1998). Xenon Radionuclides, Atmospheric: Monitoring. In R. Meyers (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation (pp. 5299-5314): John Wiley & Sons. Requires purchase of book
  • Bowyer, Schlosser, Abel, Auer, Hayes, Heimbigner, et al. (2002). Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 59(2), 139-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(01)00042-X
  • Cagniant, Topin, Le Petit, Gross, Delaune, Philippe, et al. (2018). SPALAX NG: A breakthrough in radioxenon field measurement. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 134, 461-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.06.042
  • Cooper, M.W., et al., Radioxenon net count calculations revisited. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 2019. 321(2): p. 369-382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-019-06565-y
  • Foxe, M.P., et al., A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization. 2015, ; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). DOI:  10.2172/1258732
  • Foxe, M.P. and M.F. Mayer, Conceptual Silicon Beta Cell Design. 2018, ; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). DOI:  10.2172/1464271
  • Foxe, M.P. and J.I. McIntyre, Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector. 2015, ; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). DOI:  10.2172/1258733
  • Goodwin, M.A., et al., A high-resolution β−γ coincidence spectrometry system for radioxenon measurements. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 2020. 978: p. 164452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2020.164452
  • Haas, Eslinger, Bowyer, Cameron, Hayes, Lowrey, et al. (2017). Improved performance comparisons of radioxenon systems for low level releases in nuclear explosion monitoring. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 178, 127-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2017.08.005
  • Hayes, J.C., et al., Requirements for Xenon International (Rev. 2). 2018, ; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). DOI:  10.2172/1545382
  • Hayes, J.C., et al., Xenon International Overview. 2018, ; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). DOI:  10.2172/1472068
  • Khrustalev, K., V.Y. Popov, and Y.S. Popov, Silicon PIN diode based electron-gamma coincidence detector system for Noble Gases monitoring. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 2017. 126: p. 237-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.02.010
  • Le Petit, Armand, Brachet, Taffary, Fontaine, Achim, et al. (2008). Contribution to the development of atmospheric radioxenon monitoring. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 276(2), 391-398. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-008-0517-x
  • Ringbom, Axelsson, Aldener, Fritioff, Kastlander, & Mörtsell (2018). SAUNA III—A major upgrade. CTBT 2018 Science and Technology. Vienna, Austria. http://docplayer.net/52753613-Sauna-iii-a-major-upgrade.html
  • Schulze, Auer, & Werzi (2000). Low level radioactivity measurement in support of the CTBTO. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 53(1-2), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-8043(00)00182-2
  • Sivels, McIntyre, Bowyer, Kalinowski, & Pozzi (2017). A review of the developments of radioxenon detectors for nuclear explosion monitoring. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 314(2), 829-841. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-017-5489-2
  • Weiss, Harms, Sartorius, Schlosser, Auer, Schulze, et al. (2000). International program to test and evaluate CTBT/IMS noble gas equipment. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, 220, U18-U18. Need to contact authors for information
  • Xie, He, Jiang, Zhang, Shi, Wu, et al. (2014). Development of a radioxenon measurement system and its application in monitoring Fukushima nuclear accident. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 97, 85-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2013.11.011

Worldwide Radionuclide Backgrounds


  • Achim, Generoso, Morin, Gross, Le Petit, & Moulin (2016). Characterization of Xe-133 global atmospheric background: Implications for the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121(9), 4951-4966. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD024872
  • Bieringer, Schlosser, Sartorius, & Schmid (2009). Trace analysis of aerosol bound particulates and noble gases at the BfS in Germany. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 67(5), 672-677. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.01.008
  • Bowyer, T.W., A Review of Global Radioxenon Background Research and Issues. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-020-02440-0
  • Bowyer, Abel, Hensley, Panisko, & Perkins (1997). Ambient Xe-133 levels in the northeast US. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 37(2), 143-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(97)00005-2
  • Bowyer, Abel, Hubbard, McKinnon, Panisko, Perkins, et al. (1998). Automated separation and measurement of radioxenon for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 235(1-2), 77-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02385941
  • Dubasov, & Okunev (2010). Krypton and Xenon Radionuclides Monitoring in the Northwest Region of Russia. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 167(4-5), 487-498. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-009-0028-x
  • Lowrey, Biegalski, Bowyer, Haas, & Hayes (2016). Consideration of impact of atmospheric intrusion in subsurface sampling for investigation of suspected underground nuclear explosions. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 307(3), 2439-2444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-015-4462-1
  • Milbrath (2007). Radioxenon Atmospheric Measurements in North Las Vegas, NV. Report #PNNL-15976, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. DOI:  10.2172/890734
  • Saey, Ringbom, Bowyer, Zahringer, Auer, Faanhof, et al. (2013). Worldwide measurements of radioxenon background near isotope production facilities, a nuclear power plant and at remote sites: the "EU/JA-II" Project. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 296(2), 1133-1142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-012-2025-2
  • Saey, Schlosser, Achim, Auer, Axelsson, Becker, et al. (2010). Environmental Radioxenon Levels in Europe: a Comprehensive Overview. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 167(4-5), 499-515. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-009-0034-z
  • Saey, Wotawa, De Geer, Axelsson, Bean, d'Amours, et al. (2006). Radioxenon background at high northern latitudes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 111(D17). https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD007038
  • Stocki, Armand, Heinrich, Ungar, D'Amours, Korpach, et al. (2008). Measurement and modelling of radioxenon plumes in the Ottawa Valley. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 99(11), 1775-1788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.07.009
  • Stocki, Blanchard, D'Amours, Ungar, Fontaine, Sohier, et al. (2005). Automated radioxenon monitoring for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty in two distinctive locations: Ottawa and Tahiti. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 80(3), 305-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.10.005

WOSMIP


  • Bowyer, Axelsson, Baré, Berg, Boytsova, Brown, et al. (2017). Workshop on Signatures of Man-Made Isotope Production. Report #PNNL-26793, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. https://www.wosmip.org/sites/default/files/documents/wosmipVI2017.pdf
  • Burnett (2018). The 7th Workshop on Signatures of Man-Made Isotope Production. Report #PNNL-28870, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. https://www.wosmip.org/sites/default/files/documents/WOSMIP%202018%20Summary%20Report.pdf
  • Doll, Achim, Amaya, Auer, Ball, Berg, et al. (2015). WOSMIP V - Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production. Report #PNNL-25226, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Matthews, Amaya, Auer, Aviv, Bowyer, Bradley, et al. (2013). WOSMIP III - Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production. Report #PNNL-21052, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Matthews, Bowyer, Saey, & Payne (2012). The Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production - WOSMIP; Strassoldo, Italy, 1-3 July 2009. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 110, 1-6.
  • Matthews, Saey, Bowyer, Vandergrift, Ramamoorthy, Cutler, et al. (2010). Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production - A Review. Report #PNNL-19294, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Metz, Aydia, Bigles, & Camps J. (2014). WOSMIP IV – Workshop on Signatures of Medical and Industrial Isotope Production. Report #PNNL-23165, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Last Updated: November 2020